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Locke’s father, a lawyer, served as a captain in the cavalry of the parliamentarians and saw some limited action.From an early age, one may thus assume, Locke rejected any claim by the king to have a divine right to rule. It was to this already famous institution that Locke went in 1647, at age 14.In political theory, or political philosophy, John Locke refuted the theory of the divine right of kings and argued that all persons are endowed with natural rights to life, liberty, and property and that rulers who fail to protect those rights may be removed by the people, by force if necessary.
(first edition published in 1690 but substantially composed before 1683), in which he defended a theory of political authority based on natural individual rights and freedoms and the consent of the governed.
In epistemology (the philosophical theory of knowledge), John Locke argued against the existence of innate ideas (ideas present in the mind naturally or at birth) by showing how all except “trifling” human ideas may be derived from sensation or reflection (observation of the operations of the mind) and how knowledge may be defined in terms of the perception of agreement or connections between ideas.
The restoration of the English monarchy in 1660 was a mixed blessing for Locke.
It led many of his scientific collaborators to return to London, where they soon founded the Royal Society, which provided the stimulus for much scientific research.
Locke attended classes in iatrochemistry (the early application of chemistry to medicine), and before long he was collaborating with Boyle on important medical research on human blood.
Medicine from now on was to play a central role in his life.
He graduated with a bachelor’s degree in 1656 and a master’s two years later, about which time he was elected a student (the equivalent of fellow) of Christ Church.
At Oxford Locke made contact with some advocates of the new science, including Bishop John Wilkins, the astronomer and architect Christopher Wren, the physicians Thomas Willis and Richard Lower, the physicist Robert Hooke, and, most important of all, the eminent natural philosopher and theologian Robert Boyle.
Although Locke was evidently a good student, he did not enjoy his schooling; in later life he attacked boarding schools for their overemphasis on corporal punishment and for the uncivil behaviour of pupils.
In his enormously influential work Christ Church, the largest of the colleges of the University of Oxford and the seat of the court of Charles I during the Civil Wars.