Summative Assessment Because summative assessments are usually higher-stakes than formative assessments, it is especially important to insure that the assessment aligns with the goals and expected outcomes of the instruction.
The downloads section (bottom) features a printable handout version of this web page.
In general, it’s pretty easy to tell when a project involves human subjects, but distinguishing nonresearch from research, as it is defined by the U. Department of Health and Human Services, is more complicated.
It depends in large part on whether the project will result in generalizable knowledge.
In short, formative assessment occurs throughout a class or course, and seeks to improve student achievement of learning objectives through approaches that can support specific student needs (Theal and Franklin, 2010, p. In contrast, summative assessments evaluate student learning, knowledge, proficiency, or success at the conclusion of an instructional period, like a unit, course, or program.
Summative assessments are almost always formally graded and often heavily weighted (though they do not need to be). Assessing Teaching Practices and Effectiveness for Formative Purposes. Among other things, assessors routinely ignore practices that are considered essential safeguards for research subjects as well as standard research design principles.A basic tenet of ethical human subjects research is that the research subjects should consent to participate.Summative assessment can be used to great effect in conjunction and alignment with formative assessment, and instructors can consider a variety of ways to combine these approaches. Formative Assessment Ideally, formative assessment strategies improve teaching and learning simultaneously. Instructors can help students grow as learners by actively encouraging them to self-assess their own skills and knowledge retention, and by giving clear instructions and feedback. Seven principles (adapted from Nicol and Macfarlane-Dick, 2007 with additions) can guide instructor strategies: (list of techniques available here). (2006) Formative assessment and self‐regulated learning: a model and seven principles of good feedback practice. Even if you don’t establish a baseline, you might still be able to look at a capstone project and say that your students met the declared program-level outcome of being able to write a cogent research paper or design and execute a psychology experiment.From an IRB perspective, however, this is not research.Sometimes the next step is to determine what level of knowledge or skill students bring with them when they start the course or program, although that is not always done.The final step is to have some sort of posttest or “artifact” -- assessmentspeak for a student-produced product like a paper rather than, say, a potsherd -- which can be examined (invariably with a rubric) to determine if the course or program outcomes have been met. The pretest gives you a baseline measurement, and then, if students do X percent better on the posttest, you appear to have evidence that they made progress.