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The counterclaim is always accompanied by a refutation, sometimes referred to as a rebuttal.The Common Core State Standards include the counterclaim in Writing Standards 1.0 for grades 7-12.
After you read this chapter, you’ll understand how to go about finding interesting topics for a variety of different types of speeches.
In this chapter, we are going to explain how to identify the general purpose of a speech.
Seventh Grade: Introduce claim(s), acknowledge alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
Eighth Grade: Introduce claim(s), acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
These Standards reference the organization of the counterclaim in terms of clear relationships and logical sequencing.
See the boldface phrases in the following grades 7-12 Standards.We will also discuss how to select a topic, what to do if you’re just drawing a blank, and four basic questions you should ask yourself about the speech topic you ultimately select.Finally, we will explain how to use your general purpose and your chosen topic to develop the specific purpose and thesis of your speech.report, fewer serious injuries occur to students playing after school sports as compared to students not playing after school sports (Green 22). Writers can embed a counterclaim within the introductory paragraph and use the thesis statement as refutation.Introductory Paragraph Example After school sports are extra-curricular activities included in most elementary, middle school, and high schools throughout the world., the lead character sings a song about finding his purpose in life: “I don’t know how I know / But I’m gonna find my purpose / I don’t know where I’m gonna look / But I’m gonna find my purpose.” Although the song is about life in general, the lyrics are also appropriate when thinking about the purpose of your speech.You may know that you have been assigned to deliver a speech, but finding a purpose and topic seems like a formidable task.Although students do suffer both serious and minor injuries in after school sports and there are resulting absences and injury reports, without school-sponsored sports the likelihood of more injuries from less supervised recreational leagues or privately sponsored leagues with fewer safety regulations would, no doubt, be much worse. Writers can embed a counterclaim and refutation within a sentence or sentences found in a body paragraph.Embedded within Sentences Example After school sports provide safe and free programs for students who might otherwise not be able to participate in individual or team sports.Separate Paragraph Example #2 Those who favor eliminating after school sports argue that after school sports can increase the likelihood of sports-related injuries.Additionally, youth and adolescents are not developmentally ready to play contact sports.