For example, Pohjanmaa "Ostrobothnia" → Pohojammaa, ryhmä → ryhymä, and Savo vanha → vanaha.
Use of the term epenthesis implies an input-output mapping relationship in which the output contains more segmental material than the input.
Within this framework epenthesis can occur in any environment and involve any segment.
Furthermore, a rule of epenthesis may be ordered with respect to other rules in any sequence whatsoever.
However, in a theoretical framework lacking derivations, such as optimality theory, it is possible to refer only to surface-true epenthesis.
In what follows only apparent cases of surface-true epenthesis will be discussed; this is partially for practical reasons—the burden of proof is higher for cases of “covert” epenthesis—and partially because optimality theory provides a more restrictive prediction about the contexts in which epenthesis can occur, and which segments can epenthesize.In Finnish, there are two epenthetic vowels and two nativization vowels.One epenthetic vowel is the preceding vowel, found in the illative case ending -(h)*n, e.g. (There is no schwa in Finnish; the term "schwa" is often confused with the epenthetic vowel.) The second one is , connecting stems that have historically been consonant stems to their case endings, e.g. In standard Finnish, consonant clusters may not be broken by epenthetic vowels; foreign words undergo consonant deletion rather than addition of vowels. Even if the word, such as a personal name, is not loaned, a paragogic vowel is needed to connect a consonantal case ending to the word. (Inter)net → netti, or in the case of personal name, Bush -sta → Bushista "about Bush".Within generative theory, epenthesis is “triggered” or “conditioned” by the presence of specific environments.Such environments may consist of sequences that are disallowed or dispreferred within the language (*XY), and that are prevented from surfacing by the operation of epenthesis (/XY/ surfaces as [XBY]).Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Middle of 16th century: via Late Latin, from Ancient Greek ἐπένθεσις (epenthesis), from ἐπεντίθημι (epentithēmi, “I insert”), from ἐπί (epi) ἐντίθημι (entithēmi, “I put in”), from ἐν (en, “in”) τίθημι (tithēmi, “I put, place”)., Ancient Greek ἐπένθεσις - epenthesis, from epi "on" en "in" thesis "putting") is the addition of one or more sounds to a word, especially to the interior of a word. Here there is no epenthesis from a historical perspective, since the a-t is derived from Latin habet (he has), and the t is therefore the original third person verb inflection.Other terms that are often used synonymously with epenthesis include “insertion,” “intrusion,” and “linking,” although the latter two may also be used to refer only to certain specific kinds of epenthesis.Epenthesis may occur in a variety of environments: intervocalically, interconsonantally, word or syllable initially, and word or syllable finally.Finnish has moraic consonants, of which L, H and N are of interest in this case.In standard Finnish, these are slightly intensified when preceding a consonant in a medial cluster, e.g. Some dialects, like Savo and Ostrobothnian, employ epenthesis instead, using the preceding vowel in clusters of type -l C- and -h C-, and in Savo, -nh-. (An exception is that in Pohjanmaa, -lj- and -rj- become -li- and -ri-, respectively, e.g.