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The second essay finds that a scenario of moderate warming can have a positive net effect on some European countries, creating winners and losers.
It tends to be highest in winter and lowest in summer.
The nonlinear trend follows changes in health policies, economic growth rates, and other institutional factors.
Yet, while heat waves become more common, cold spells become less frequent.
As both types of extreme temperature events increase human morbidity and mortality, the net effect of this shift is unknown.
Yet, many impacts of climate change are poorly understood and binding international climate change agreements are notoriously hard to reach.
This work deals with the economics of climate change in three separate essays.
Higher temperatures also melt ice locked away in glaciers and polar regions.
This contributes to rising seas but also (in the case of glaciers) increasing the risks of flooding in the short term, and decreased river flow in the longer term.
The first one introduces a new methodology to estimate the impacts of climate extremes on public health.
The second utilizes this methodology to assess the impacts of several climate change scenarios on Europe.