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The 11-member committee, led by Motilal Nehru, was constituted in 1928.
The experiences of the Second World War, the unsatisfactory Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms of 1919, and the rise to prominence of M. Gandhi in the Indian independence movement marked a change in the attitude of its leaders towards articulating demands for civil rights.
The focus shifted from demanding equality of status between Indians and the British to assuring liberty for all Indians.
These sections are considered vital elements of the constitution, which was developed between 19 by the Constituent Assembly of India.
The Fundamental Rights are defined as the basic human rights of all citizens.
These rights are largely enforceable against the State, which as per the wide definition provided in Article 12, includes not only the legislative and executive wings of the federal and state governments, but also local administrative authorities and other agencies and institutions which discharge public functions or are of a governmental character.
Further, certain Fundamental Rights – including those under Articles 14, 20, 21, 25 – apply to persons of any nationality upon Indian soil, while others – such as those under Articles 15, 16, 19, 30 – are applicable only to citizens of India.
The Fundamental Rights, embodied in Part III of the Constitution, guarantee civil rights to all Indians, and prevent the State from encroaching an individual's liberty while simultaneously placing upon it an obligation to protect the citizens' rights from encroachment by society.
Seven fundamental rights were originally provided by the Constitution – the right to equality, right to freedom, right against exploitation, right to freedom of religion, cultural and educational rights, right to property and right to constitutional remedies.
Parliament may also restrict the application of the Fundamental Rights to members of the Indian Armed Forces and the police, in order to ensure proper discharge of their duties and the maintenance of discipline, by a law made under Article 33.
The Right to Equality is one of the chief guarantees of the Constitution.