Pears Charles Sanders Peirce Derk Pereboom Steven Pinker Plato Karl Popper Porphyry Huw Price H. (Determinists do not like this requirement.) Freedom also requires an adequately determined will that chooses or selects from those alternative possibilities.
Meehl Uwe Meixner Alfred Mele Trenton Merricks John Stuart Mill Dickinson Miller G. Moore Thomas Nagel Otto Neurath Friedrich Nietzsche John Norton P. Nowell-Smith Robert Nozick William of Ockham Timothy O'Connor Parmenides David F. Rietdijk Richard Rorty Josiah Royce Bertrand Russell Paul Russell Gilbert Ryle Jean-Paul Sartre Kenneth Sayre T. Scanlon Moritz Schlick Arthur Schopenhauer John Searle Wilfrid Sellars Alan Sidelle Ted Sider Henry Sidgwick Walter Sinnott-Armstrong J. This randomness must be located in a place and time that enhances free will, one that does not reduce it to pure chance.
Bernstein Bernard Berofsky Robert Bishop Max Black Susanne Bobzien Emil du Bois-Reymond Hilary Bok Laurence Bon Jour George Boole Émile Boutroux F. ( The question of the existence of "free will" is an empirical and factual question about the nature of the mind.
Ayer Alexander Bain Mark Balaguer Jeffrey Barrett William Belsham Henri Bergson George Berkeley Isaiah Berlin Richard J. For such philosophers, "freedom" refers to whatever conditions are involved in choosing or acting in such a way as to be morally responsible.
We must separate the "free" thoughts from the "willed" actions.
A random thought can lead to an adequately determined action, for which we can take full responsibility.
Vargas says: It is not clear that there is any single thing that people have had in mind by the term "free will." Perhaps the dominant characterization in the history of philosophy is that it is something like the freedom condition on moral responsibility.
Roughly, the idea is that to be morally responsible for something, you had to have some amount of freedom, at some suitable time prior to the action or outcome for which you are responsible.
Most of the ancient thinkers on the problem were trying to show that we humans have control over our decisions, that our actions "depend on us", and that they are not pre-determined by fate, by arbitrary gods, by logical necessity, or by a natural causal determinism.
From the earliest beginnings, the problem of "free will" has been intimately connected with the question of moral responsibility.