Some societies believe that all persons are hermaphroditic and the removal of the clitoris makes the female a "pure woman".
It is said also to test a woman’s ability to bear pain and defines her future roles in life and marriage while preparing her for the pain of childbirth.
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These "operations" are done with special knives, razor blades, scissors or pieces of glass and stone.
The girl’s legs are then bound together from hip to ankle and she is kept immobile for up to 40 days to permit the formation of scar tissue.
Immigrants from these countries perform FGM in Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America.
It is suspected that FGM is performed among some indigenous groups in Central and South America. The methods and types of mutilation differ according to each country and ethnic group.
In the Middle East, FGM is practised in Egypt, Oman, the United Arab Emirates and Yemen.
It has also been reported in Asian countries such as India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Sri Lanka.