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This clearly indicates a research gap in this area, with numerous avenues for future work.
All included projects were conducted in public sector settings.
The majority of projects (73%) investigated the implementation of a specific EBP.
Data extraction included the objective, language, country, setting, sector, EBP, study design, methodology, level(s) of data collection, unit(s) of analysis, use of EPIS (i.e., purpose), implementation factors and processes, EPIS stages, implementation strategy, implementation outcomes, and overall depth of EPIS use (rated on a 1–5 scale).
In total, 762 full-text articles were screened by four reviewers, resulting in inclusion of 67 articles, representing 49 unique research projects.
On average, the overall depth of EPIS inclusion was moderate (2.8 out of 5).
This systematic review enumerated multiple settings and ways the EPIS framework has been applied in implementation research projects, and summarized promising characteristics and strengths of the framework, illustrated with examples.
The majority of projects (90%) examined inner context factors, 57% examined outer context factors, 37% examined innovation factors, and 31% bridging factors (i.e., factors that cross or link the outer system and inner organizational context).
On average, projects measured EPIS factors across two of the EPIS phases (M = 2.02), with the most frequent phase being Implementation (73%).
Four papers applied SPI techniques or models to Web companies, and our results showed that none suggested any customized model or technique to measure the SPI of Web companies.
The SLR also revealed the characteristics of some small and medium companies and suggested that they have tight budget constraints, tight deadlines and a short term strategy.