Prostaglandin Sythesis Induced By Snake Venom

Prostaglandin Sythesis Induced By Snake Venom-29
MT-III, a snake venom GIIA s PLA2, which shares structural and functional features with mammalian GIIA s PLA2s, activates macrophage defense functions including lipid droplet (LDs) formation, organelle involved in both lipid metabolism and inflammatory processes.Macrophages (MΦs) loaded with LDs, termed foam cells, characterize early blood vessel fatty-streak lesions during atherosclerosis.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited., but the molecular mechanism underlying its proinflammatory action is not fully understood.

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Aliquots of the washes were used for total cell counts in a Neubauer chamber after dilution (, ) in Turk solution (0.2% crystal violet dye in 30% acetic acid).

To verify the predominance of macrophages in samples, differential cell counts were performed on smears stained with Hema3.

Donkey serum was obtained from Jackson Immuno Research Laboratories (West Grove, PA, USA).

Triton-X was obtained from Union Carbide (Houston, TX, USA).

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Detailed information on how Wiley uses cookies can be found in our Privacy Policy.Male Swiss mice (18–20g) were obtained from Butantan Institute (São Paulo, Brazil).Animals were housed in a temperature-controlled room (22–24°C) with a 12h light-dark cycle and fresh water and food ad libitum.Moreover, PPAR-β/δ, but not PPAR-γ, is involved in MT-III-induced PLIN2 protein expression, and both PPAR-β/δ and PPAR-γ upregulated CD36 protein expression, which contributes to MT-III-induced COX-2 expression.Furthermore, production of 15-d-PGJ2, an activator of PPARs, induced by MT-III, was dependent on COX-1 being LDs an important platform for generation of this mediator.Homogeneity of the final preparation was assessed by analytical RP-HPLC on a C4 column (4.6×150mm) using a 0–60% acetonitrile gradient.The absence of endotoxin contamination in the MT-III preparation was demonstrated by the quantitative Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) test [16], which revealed undetectable levels of endotoxin ( atmosphere, and cells were harvested by washing peritoneal cavities with 3m L of PBS, p H7.2, containing 10IU/m L heparin.We found that MT-III activated PPAR-γ and PPAR-β/δ and increased the protein levels of both transcription factors and CD36 in macrophages.Pharmacological interventions evidenced that PPAR-γ, PPAR-β/δ, and CD36 as well as the endoplasmic reticulum enzymes ACAT and DGAT are essential for LD formation.GW9662, GSK0660, and A922500 were purchased from Merck KGa A (Darmstadt, HE, Germany).TMP-153 and 15-d-PGJ2 antibody were obtained from Cayman Chemical (Ann Arbor, MI, USA).


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