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Satellite measurements of gas emissions and hot thermal features, like those pictured here from the Volcán de Fuego in Guatemala, could help scientists monitor less studied volcanoes for signs of impending eruptions.Credit: i Stock.com/John Crux Millions of people live within 100 kilometers of an active volcano, in danger from volcanic bombs, lava flows, and clouds of ash.
The magma ascent to the surface occurred through a conduit of possibly 70 to 100 m in diameter (5).
A thermal model predicts that such a reservoir should contain a core of partially molten magma (6) that can be detected by high-resolution seismic tomography.
Its activity ranging from Hawaiian-style release of liquid lava, fountaining and lava lakes, over Strombolian and Vulcanian activity to violently explosive, plinian events that produce pyroclastic flows and surges.
Scientists are asked to describe and understand the complex behavior of natural processes.
Predicting when a volcano will erupt is incredibly difficult, even with heavy monitoring.
The pools of molten rock that feed volcanoes—such as the behemoth magma reservoir below Yellowstone—are underground, where scientists can’t directly observe their behavior.
Mount Vesuvius is a volcano located in southern Italy, near the bay of Naples and the city of Naples.
It is the only active volcano on the European mainland. Vesuvio (Vesuvius) is probably the most famous volcano on earth, and is one of the most dangerous.
Satellite observations do have drawbacks that prevent satellites from being an accurate predictive tool, however.
Although NASA collects data on sulfur dioxide emissions over the Colima volcano in Mexico, for example, the volcanic emissions are often masked by pollution from Mexico City.