Educators must understand the complex nature of this beast if it is to be addressed effectively.
Furthermore, this review will look at the predictors of aggression in youth and how these factors can be addressed to combat bullying of any kind in the school setting.
Review Because cyberbullying is a relatively new phenomenon, there is some degree of variance in its definition.
In its early inception, cyberbullying was thought to be limited to the internet.
According to Royen, Poels, Vandebosch, and Adam (2017) ‘cyber harassment’ can be understood as ‘rude, threatening or offensive content directed at others by friends or strangers and performed via electronic means’ (p. Meanwhile, bullying has been conceptualised as taking place among peers in a school context, and for this reason, only certain forms of ‘online harassment’ can be considered cyberbullying (Wolak, Mitchell, & Finkelhor, 2007).
Although there are numerous forms of electronic aggression (Pyżalski, 2012), this paper is limited to cyberbullying (Slonje, Smith, & Frisén, 2013).
Research reveals the relevant role played by bystanders in stopping bullying and cyberbullying. Firstly, there are contextual factors, which refer to the relationships at play, the interactions and the environment, and are grouped into the following categories: friendship, social environment, bystander effect, incident severity, action of other bystanders, request for assistance, evaluation of the situation, knowledge of effective strategies, characteristics of virtual environments, and fear of retaliation.
The aim of this work is to identify those factors which encourage or hamper the mobilisation of young bystanders under 20 years of age in instances of cyberbullying, through a systematic literature review spanning 2005 to 2016 in the databases Web of Science Core Collection and Sci ELO Citation Index. Secondly, there are personal factors, referring to individual traits, categorised into: empathy, moral disengagement, self-efficacy, behavioural determinants, previous experience of bullying and cyberbullying, and demographic and socio-economic data.
New bottle but old wine: A research of cyberbullying in schools.
International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28(3), 246-258.