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Neurons located at specific points can may have distant axonal terminations and can also receive impulses from the axons of distant neurons.An example of this are the inferior motor neurons in the spinal cord, since their axons can transmit information to the extremities of the lower limbs, triggering foot contractions.
An exception is the hippocampus, an area of the brain involved in memory formation.
The nervous system is an extraordinarily complex communication system that can send and receive voluminous amounts of information simultaneously.
Normally, nerves transmit impulses electrically in one direction—from the impulse-sending axon of one nerve cell (also called a neuron) to the impulse-receiving dendrites of the next nerve cell.
At contact points between nerve cells, (synapses), the axon secretes tiny amounts of chemical messengers (neurotransmitters).
The structures that form the nervous system can be divided into the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS).
The organs of the CNS are the brain (cerebrum, brainstem and cerebellum) and spinal cord. In addition to these organs, the meninges (dura-mater, arachnoid and pia-mater) are also a part of the nervous system, since they cover and protect the encephalon and the spinal cord.Dendrites are projections of the plasma membrane that receive the neural impulse from other neurons.The cell body is where the nucleus and the main cellular organelles are located.The axon is the long membrane projection that transmits the neural impulse at a distance to other neurons, to muscle cells and to other effector cells.Synapses are the structures that transmit a neural impulse between two neurons.Afference is the conduction of sensory impulses and efference is the conduction of effector impulses (impulses that command some action in the body). Nerves are axon-containing structures which are home to a large number of axons and which are covered by connective tissue.Nerves connect neural nuclei and ganglia with tissues.Most neurons are located within the brain and the spinal cord (the central nervous system) in places known as neural nuclei.Neural ganglia, or simply ganglia, are structures of the peripheral nervous system located beside the spine or near certain organs, in which neuron cell bodies are also located.Nerves may contain only sensory axons (sensory nerves), only motor axons (motor neurons) or both types of axons (mixed nerves).Ganglia (singular ganglion), or neural ganglia, are structures located outside the central nervous system (for example, beside the spine or near viscera) made of a concentration of neuron bodies.