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Successful completion of these stages, Freud argued, led to the development of a healthy personality, but fixation at any stage prevents completion and therefore the development of an unhealthy, fixated personality as an adult.
Although elements of this theory are still used in modern day In his later work, Freud proposed that the human psyche could be divided into three parts: Id, Ego and Superego.
May 1856 in a small town named Freiberg, Moravia (now the Czech Republic).
Although born to a relatively poor Jewish family, Freud originally planned to study law at the University of Vienna but later changed his mind and opted for medicine.
In 1923 Freud published “The Ego and the Id” revising the structural make-up of the mind, and continued to work feverishly during this period developing his ideas.
By 1938 and the arrival of the Nazis in Austria, Freud left for London with his wife and children.It was about this time also that Freud began his own self-analysis in which he meticulously analysed his dreams in light of unconscious processes culminating in his next major work “The Interpretation of Dreams” (1901).Freud had by now also developed his therapeutic technique of free association and was no longer practicing hypnosis.After spending four months abroad on placement in the Salpetriere clinic in Paris, Freud began to harbour an interest in “hysteria” and particularly the hypnosis methods of its leading neurologist, Jean Martin Charcot.Upon his return to Vienna, Freud left the Vienna General Hospital and set up a private practice specialising in “nervous and brain disorders”.From this he went on to explore the influence of unconscious thought processes on various aspects of human behaviour and felt that amongst these forces the most powerful were the sexual desires in childhood which were repressed from the conscious mind.Although the medical establishment as whole disagreed with many of his theories, in 1910 Freud along with a group of pupils and followers founded the International Psychoanalytic Association, with Carl Jung as president.There, along with his colleague Joseph Breuer, Freud began exploring the traumatic life histories of clients with hysteria, leading to the view that talking was a “cathartic” way of releasing “pent up emotion”.Consequently, along with Breuer, Freud published “Studies on Hysteria” (1895) and began to develop the first ideas towards psychoanalysis.Upon graduating, Freud began work in a psychiatry clinic in the Vienna General Hospital.Psychiatry at this time however took no interest in the psychological components of mental health, but simply viewed behaviour in light of the anatomical structures of the brain.