Tags: Business Studies Lesson PlanStructure Of A Research ProposalAudison Thesis AmplifiersTaxidermy Research PaperPersuasive Essay On Child Beauty PageantsSolve My Chemistry ProblemEssay Plus Size ModelsEssay On The Gathering By Isobelle Carmody
The NDHS surveys are part of the DHS program of surveys that are highly regarded for methodological soundness and rigor in the design and conduct of data collection.
On the one hand, high teenage pregnancy rates may result from the culturally sanctioned practice of early marriage and early marital childbearing, and on the other, from premarital intercourse and unintended pregnancy.
Research evidence points to a shift in behaviors among young people in patterns of sexual activity such that early childbearing is becoming more a consequence of early intercourse.
The same elevated risks for teenage pregnancies, independent of known major confounders like low socioeconomic status, inadequate prenatal care and inadequate weight gain during pregnancy were documented using data from the 1995-2000 nationally linked birth/infant death data set of the United States compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
In developing countries where no large data bases exist, evidence from smaller samples show similar results indicating that the risks are not specifically linked to the level of development of a country’s health care system and the availability of appropriate maternal care for very young pregnant women, but are specific to the age group and its accompanying implication of biological immaturity for childbearing.
Studies have shown that at age 35 and over, and especially at 45 and over, women are more likely to experience gestational diabetes, placenta previa, breech presentation and operative vaginal delivery than younger women aged 20-29.
Other observed complications that are more prevalent among older mothers compared to mothers in their twenties are preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, cesarean delivery, abruptio placenta and preterm delivery.
The optimal ages for successful pregnancy are in the peak reproductive years.
At either end of the reproductive spectrum, that is at the youngest (below 20) and the oldest (40 and above) ages, there is a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.
This is more often true in urban than in rural areas.
Zabin and Kiragu (1998) in their review report a connection between age of onset of sexual activity or age at first birth and age at menarche resulting in earlier onset of childbearing for the current generation of teenagers compared with earlier cohorts.