Term Papers On Cloning

Term Papers On Cloning-50
The unknown (at that time) regulatory mechanisms controlling cell-specific gene expression could be reset back to the embryo stage.

The unknown (at that time) regulatory mechanisms controlling cell-specific gene expression could be reset back to the embryo stage.

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Using this procedure, Willadsen obtained live lambs (19) and calves (20) after transfer of the reconstructed embryos into surrogates.

Subsequently, several other research groups with ties to the agricultural industry began exploring the possibilities of embryo and embryonic cell nuclear transfer, achieving success with progressively later stages of embryos (Table 2).

Domestic animals can be cloned using techniques such as embryo splitting and nuclear transfer to produce genetically identical individuals.

Although embryo splitting is limited to the production of only a few identical individuals, nuclear transfer of donor nuclei into recipient oocytes, whose own nuclear DNA has been removed, can result in large numbers of identical individuals.

This reconstructed oocyte is activated to continue embryonic development.

Embryos resulting from this procedure can result in the production of a live, genetically identical individual after transfer into a recipient, although at a relative low efficiency (Table 1).

The fact that such a complex procedure works at all is amazing and is the result of decades of pioneering research.

In this review, the historical work in domestic species leading up to the development of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), along with the practical applications of this technology, will be discussed.

Prior to the blastocyst stage, cells in the early embryo, called blastomeres, divide without increasing in mass between each division: thus the term cleavage divisions—each cell cleaves in half.

This constraint led to the obvious question: If you provide additional mass, can later staged blastomeres—or more appropriately—can the nucleus of a later staged blastomere direct complete development to the blastocyst stage and be capable of continued development resulting in a normal, live offspring?

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