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If you already know which system to use, follow one of the links above to see sample citations for a variety of common sources. The notes and bibliography style is popular in the humanities—including literature, history, and the arts.In this system, sources are cited in numbered footnotes or endnotes.
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Though the general principles of citation are the same here, the citations themselves are formatted differently from the way they appear in Author-Date.
If you are using CMOS for school or work, don't forget to ensure that you're using your organization's preferred citation method.
To see a side-by-side comparison of the three most widely used citation styles, including a chart of all CMOS citation guidelines, see the Citation Style Chart.
Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in CMOS.By contrast, NB uses numbered footnotes in the text to direct the reader to a shortened citation at the bottom of the page.This corresponds to a fuller citation on a Bibliography page that concludes the document.For examples of these two different styles in action, see our CMOS sample papers: Author-Date Sample Paper NB Sample Paper In a society of control, a politics of conduct is designed into the fabric of existence itself, into the organization of space, time, visibility, circuits of communication.And these enwrap each individual life decision and action—about labour [sic], purchases, debts, credits, lifestyle, sexual contracts and the like—in a web of incitements, rewards, current sanctions and foreboding of future sanctions which serve to enjoin citizens to maintain particular types of control over their conduct.In this system, sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and year of publication.Each citation in the text matches up with an entry in a reference list, where full bibliographic information is provided.Each note corresponds to a raised (superscript) number in the text.Sources are also usually listed in a separate bibliography.Summary: This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) method of document formatting and citation.These resources follow The Chicago Manual of Style (17th edition), which was issued in 2017.