Using Old References In Essays

While there are some stylistic and institutional variations, Harvard usually follows the format specified in this guide.

In a reference list, sources are listed alphabetically by author's surname.

Last name, first initial., Last name, first initial., Last name, first initial., and Last name, first initial. When citing a single chapter in a larger book, it is important to ensure that you add the page range (pp.) that the chapter spans. They should be listed in chronological order of publication. Citations for Journal Articles accessed on a website or database In-text citations for an online journal article remain unchanged from the way you would cite a print article. Citations for Newspaper Articles – Print or Online: Newspaper citations are rendered similarly to journal articles when they are found online; the same differences in formatting occur, as the example below illustrates.

When citing an individual chapter, you should also always include the edition of the book in the citation (you do not have to do this for other books unless it is notthe first edition). Where you are citing two works by the same author which were published in the same year, these should be labelled with 'a', 'b', 'c' and so on directly after the year. The citation in the reference list does have a few differences, however.

Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay; label this page "References" centered at the top of the page (do NOT bold, underline, or use quotation marks for the title).

All text should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay.If this is not an option, the abbreviations 'n.p' or 'n. If a book has four or more authors, only the first author's name should be listed in-text followed by 'et al.', meaning 'and others'.pag.' can be used to show that no page number is available. However, all authors should be listed in the reference list in the order they are credited in the original work. In: Editor's name/s (ed/s) Citations for multiple books by the same author: In text, the author's texts can usually be differentiated by year. When citing a website, it is important to ascertain authorship of the website – if it's an article on website which is not a newspaper/magazine site or online journal, there may be an individual author; if not, the organisation or website name would be credited with authorship. Should you use references even when you haven't used a direct quotation? By knowing how to reference properly, you can reduce the stress involved in your essay writing.It is also important as it proves that you've read the key sources which relate to your topic.If you are quoting indirectly as outlined above, page numbers do not need to be used.Where a page number is not available, paragraph number can be used.A bibliography also provides a helpful resource you can go back to and use for future work.Of course, it is possible to use too many references.If you are using references just to show off all the books you've read, this will be obvious and will not impress your markers.You need to choose the sources which really contribute to your essay; supporting your argument, contesting it or prompting interesting, relevant questions.

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